Stable isotopes of lithium available from ISOFLEX
|Isotope||Z(p)||N(n)||Atomic Mass||Natural Abundance||Enrichment Level||Chemical Form|
|Li-7||3||4||7.016004||92.50%||≥99.95%|| Hydroxide Monohydrate
Lithium, named for the Greek word lithos (“stone”), was discovered in 1817 by Johan August Arfvedson during an analysis of petalite ore from the Swedish island of Utö.
A soft, silvery-white metal with a body-centered cubic structure, lithium has a heat capacity about the same as that of water. It ignites in air near its melting point and burns with a crimson-red flame and dense white fumes. It has a dangerous fire and explosion risk when exposed to water, nitrogen, acids or oxidizing agents. It is soluble in liquid ammonia, forming a blue solution.
Lithium has a high electrical conductivity and is used to make high-energy lithium batteries. It can be combined with lead, magnesium, aluminum or other metals for very useful alloys. Its most important application is in preparative chemistry as the starting material to prepare lithium hydride, amide, nitride, alkyls and aryls.
Properties of Lithium
|Standard state||Solid at 298 °K|
|CAS Registry ID||7439-93-2|
|Group in periodic table||1|
|Group name||Alkali metal|
|Period in periodic table||2|
|Block in periodic table||s-block|
|Melting point||180.54 °C|
|Boiling point||1342 °C|
|Thermal conductivity||84.8 W/(m·K) at 298.2 °K|
|Electrical resistivity||8.55 µΩ·cm at 0 °C; 12.7 µΩ·cm at 100 ºC|
|Specific heat||3.57 kJ/kg K|
|Heat of vaporization||147 kJ·mol-1 at 1342 °C|
|Heat of fusion||3.10 kJ·mol-1|
|Density of solid||0.534 g/cm3|
|Vapor pressure||1 torr at 745 °C and 10 torr at 890 ºC|
|Atomic radius||1.225 Å|
|Ionic radius||Li+: 0.59 Å (coordination number 4)|