Europium (Eu)

Stable isotopes of europium available from ISOFLEX

Isotope Z(p) N(n) Atomic Mass Natural Abundance Enrichment Level Chemical Form
Eu-151  63  88  150.919846 47.80%  97.50-99.24% Oxide
Eu-153  63  90  152.921226 52.20%  99.70%  Oxide

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The discovery and isolation of europium are generally credited to Eugène-Anatole Demarçay, who successfully isolated the element in 1901. He named it after Europe.

A steel-gray metal with a body-centered cubic crystal lattice, europium is difficult to prepare. It is quite soft and malleable. It oxidizes rapidly in air and may burn spontaneously. It is the most reactive of the rare earth metals; it liberates hydrogen from water; and it reduces metallic oxides. It reacts with water and is soluble in liquid ammonia.

Europium is used for the capture of thermal neutrons for nuclear control rods in atomic power stations. While its salts are used in coatings for cathode ray tubes in color televisions, organoderivatives are used in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

Properties of Europium

Name Europium 
Symbol Eu 
Atomic number 63 
Atomic weight 151.97 
Standard state Solid at 298 ºK 
CAS Registry ID 7440-53-1 
Group in periodic table N/A 
Group name Lanthanoid
Period in periodic table 6 (lanthanoid) 
Block in periodic table f-block 
Color Silvery white 
Classification Metallic 
Melting point 822 °C
Boiling point 1597 °C
Vaporization point 1596 ºC
Thermal conductivity 13.9 W/(m·K) at 298.2 ºK
Electrical resistivity 90.0 µΩ·cm at 25 ºC 
Electronegativity 1.2 
Specific heat 0.176 J/g mol at 20 ºC
Heat of vaporization 175 kJ·mol-1
Heat of fusion 9.2 kJ·mol-1
Density of liquid 5.13 g/cm3 at 822 °C 
Density of solid 5.26 g/cm3 
Electron configuration [Xe]4f65d16s2 (partially filled orbitals) 
Oxidation states  +2, +3 

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